After much research, some of the answers were found in a detailed reading of Sacagawea's role in the
8 volumes of daily journals written by Lewis and Clark, during the Corps of Discovery's expedition to the
Pacific Ocean, and the few remaining historical documents confirming Sacagawea's true fate.
During the Expedition she appeared to have no difficulty in shifting her personal loyalty to
provide essential assistance to the success of the Meriwether Lewis and William Clark Expedition.
The reasons can be found in the detailed anthropological descriptions about her Band of
LEMHI-Shoshone, written by expedition leaders in their personal contact with them (Lewis, 1969).
Sacagawea and those around her were also forthcoming in providing the explorers with personal
accounts of her childhood. She, along with other female children experienced mistreatment in her
LEMHI-Shoshone village because of their gender. They experienced beatings given only to girls,
and did hard work not required of male children. They watched as Shoshone women were
prostituted by their own husbands, made to do all the work of the camp, while the males engaged
solely in the excitement of hunting and war (Lewis, 1969).
Although some of these practices were widely held by other Shoshone Bands, Sacagawea’s
people were in an unusually distressed state in the early 1800's. Enemy tribes had been chasing
them, robbing and decimating their group for many years. It had left them poor, and continually on
the run, breaking down social values that would have provided needed unity and peace within the
Band. Lewis wrote of his discovery that they even hoarded meat which was killed during a hunt,
letting other members of their own Band starve.
Sacagawea was eleven years old when the Minitaree, an enemy tribe armed with guns, violently
attacked and destroyed her village, either killing or taking captive most of her family (Schroer,
1977) . Later, when the Lewis and Clark Expedition came upon the junction where three rivers
flow into the Missouri, she informed them that this was the place where she had been taken
captive by the Minnetares five years earlier. They had killed most of the people of her Shoshone
Tribe and captured her to serve as a slave. She would later discover that the only family members
to survive was her brother, Cameahwait, and an infant son of her oldest sister (Lewis, 1969).
A young Shoshone Brave
Goldtone photo taken late 1800.
Sacagawea was then sold to the Mandan Indians who kept her enslaved until they gambled her
off to an irritable, abusive, middle-aged white French-Canadian fur trader named Toussaint
Charbonneau. He forced her to become his dutiful wife after winning her in a game of chance with
the Mandan Indians he lived among. A female Indian living in 1800 had few freedoms (Lewis,
Overview of Sacagawea's Life
A girl of about 16 years old when Lewis and Clark met her at Fort Mandan in North Dakota
territory, she had no positive experiences with either the White or the Red Man.
Instead of breaking her spirit, all of Sacagawea's experiences contributed to the courage and
strength she would repeatedly demonstrate on the Expedition. Most importantly, Lewis and
Clark's attitude towards her would change over the course of the Expedition, transforming itself
from complete indifference into tremendous respect and admiration.
At first they referred to her in their log as "Squaw," a derogatory Algonquian Indian word meaning
prostitute, which was used by both Indians and Whites when referring to Indian women. Respect
grew for Sacagawea as the explorers watched her incredible courage and resilience during a near
fatal illness, a near drowning, beatings from her husband, and the intense workload and rugged
hardships she shouldered during the Expedition (Lewis, 1969).
In the end, Sacagawea would begin to claim the freedoms and rights that she had won through
her valuable contributions to the Expedition. Sacagawea's spirit would thrive in this Democratic
environment, filled with equality (Lewis, 1969). Born into the LEMHI-Shoshone Tribe, Sacagawea
had been ill treated since birth because she was a female. Boys in the tribe were never spanked
because the Shoshone knew severe punishment can break the spirit of the young (Lewis, 1969).
During the Expedition both Lewis and Clark were given the job of accurately studying and
recording information about the Native peoples they encountered. This has given us insight into
Sacagawea's birth tribe as they existed during the early 1800's.
They found that the Shoshone males enjoyed a privileged status, while Shoshone females were
given a life of drudgery, as indicated by Meriwether Lewis in his log for August 19, 1805: "They
seldom correct their children particularly the boys who soon become masters of their own acts"
Lewis continued, "They give as a reason that it cows and breaks the spirit of the boy to whip him,
and that he never recovers his independence of mind after he is grown. They treat their women
but with little rispect [respect], and compel them to perform every species of drudgery" (Lewis,
19th CENTURY SHOSHONE WOMEN WERE HELD IN LOW ESTEEM
Lewis continued, "They collect the wild fruits and roots, attend to the horses or assist in that duty,
cook, dress the skins and make all the apparel, collect wood and make their fires, arrange and
form their lodges [brush teepees], and when they travel, pack the horses and take charge of all
the baggage; in short the man dose [does] little else except attend his horses hunt and fish"
Shoshone Men on Horses
Obviously incensed, Lewis continued to write, "The man considers himself degraded if compelled
to walk any distance; and leavs the woman or women [they usually have many wives because
they are needed to do the work]to transport the baggage and children…and to walk if the horse is
unable to carry additional weight. The chastity of their women is not held in high estimation, and
the husband will for a trifle barter the companion of his bead [bed] for a night or longer if he
conceives the reward adiquate[adequate]" (Lewis, 1969).
In other words the Shoshone prostituted his own wives, even calling them "Squaw," an Algonquian Indian
term meaning prostitute. Lewis stated further:
"I was anxious to learn whether these people had venerial [sexually transmitted diseases], and
later made the enquiry through the interpreter and his wife; the information was that they
sometimes had it but I could not learn their remedy; they most usually die with it's effects" (Lewis,
Is it little wonder that Sacagawea did not choose to stay with the tribe of her birth once she
had been reunited with them?
The explorers would soon learn that the LEMHI-Shoshone Indians whom they would depend
upon for the success of the Expedition were in a terrible state of poverty.
FOR YEARS THEY HAD BEEN ON THE RUN FROM NEIGHBORING ENEMY TRIBES
The Shoshones had been continually raided and robbed by the Minitaree Sioux and Blackfeet,
who were armed with rifles supplied by white traders. In nearly every conflict with other tribes, the
Shoshones would lose all their possessions and many Tribal members to enslavement or death,
because they fought only with bows and arrows.
This is how 16 year old Sacagawea ended up hundreds of miles from her Shoshone home in a fur
trading fort in North Dakota where Lewis and Clark first met her. She now belonged to an abusive,
French-Canadian trapper who had won her in a gambling contest with the Mandans. She was
merely one of Toussaint Charbonneau's many Indian wives. Charbonneau was the son of a Sioux
mother and a White father, but he chose to live among the Mandans and work as a fur trader and
interpreter (Lewis, 1969).
Mandan Sioux Indian
Lewis and Clark had set up a winter camp at the Fort Mandan Trading Post. They had hired
Charbonneau to join the Expedition as an Indian interpreter, because he knew Sioux and French,
which enabled him to communicate with many different tribes. Like the Mandan, he was a
polygamist who had already taken two other Indian wives (Lewis, 1969).
While conversing with Charbonneau, they learned that Sacagawea knew the Shoshone language
of her birth tribe. They asked Charbonneau to bring her on the Expedition even though she would
have a newborn child to care for. They knew that when they reached the source of the Missouri
River, they would need to buy horses from a Shoshone Tribe known to be in the area. Without
horses they would not be able to continue the Expedition across land to reach the Pacific Ocean
Within the first few months of the Expedition, Lewis and Clark would come to value Sacagawea's
strength, intelligence, and bravery in the face of the many unexpected hardships during the
exploration consigned to them by President Jefferson.
By order of the President, Lewis and Clark were assigned with the job of discovering a water
passage through the unexplored Northwest that would be a direct route to the Pacific Ocean. To
successfully complete the trek through unexplored territory, and map the Northwest Passage to
the Western Coast, the White men would need the help of the LEMHI-Shoshone Indians whose
land they would claim for their own. Little did they know that this tribe was composed of
Sacagawea's people. Her brother was their Chief (Lewis, 1969).
NO WHITE MAN HAD EVER ENTERED THE SHOSHONE LANDS
THIS BEAUTIFUL LAND BELONGED TO THE INDIANS
They would have to travel by canoe up to the beginning of the Missouri River, and venture
through rugged terrain by horse, which they would have to purchase from the Shoshone.
It had been a dream of civilized European and American Governments for several hundred years
to find a direct route through the land of Sacagawea's birth.
The Expedition would be in for a shock when they reached the source of the Missouri River and
hiked over the first mountain. The wilderness before them was vast. Instead of a few miles, they
would have to trek for many months. Horses were an absolute necessity. They desperately
needed Sacagawea's LEMHI-Shoshone Indians who inhabited the mountains. The Shoshone had
heard about the White man but they had never seen one.
NATURE HELD THE ONLY MYSTERY FOR PLAINS INDIANS
EXPEDITION PREPARES TO ENTER THE NATIVE AMERICAN WILDERNESS
Lewis and Clark prepared for the rugged Expedition in Fort Mandan, which was located in a very
cold area in North Dakota. When the ice thawed in the Spring of 1805, they would set out on the
Expedition, taking Sacagawea and Charbonneau along as Indian Interpreters. However,
Sacagawea went into labor 2 months before they were to set out on the Expedition the following
Spring (Lewis, 1969).
She had experienced a difficult delivery under primitive, unsanitary conditions when
Jean-Baptiste (called Pomp by Sacagawea) was born. Shortly after his birth, he was strapped to
her back in a cradle board as the Expedition set out on its rugged trip. Sixteen year old
Sacagawea was expected to be a fully contributing member of the expedition, and she was
SACAGAWEA SAVES THE EXPEDITION SUPPLIES
Although Sacagawea had demonstrated her personal value to the Expedition, it was not yet
recognized. On June 10, 1805, Lewis demonstrates an indifference to her survival. He writes that
she is very sick and then he continues on about minor matters in the same sentence "Capt. C.
[Clark] blead her [drew blood- a common 1800's treatment] the night was cloudy with some rain."
Then he continued to discuss in great detail about a species of bird he had seen (Lewis, 1969).
On the same day, Clark entered notes in his journal misspelling the name assigned to her by her
captors, "Sahcahgagwea our Indian Woman verry sick. I blead her, we determined to assend the
South fork, and one of us, Capt. Lewis or my self to go by land as far as the Snow mountains S. 20
[degrees] W. and examine the country..." (Lewis, 1969).
SACAGAWEA BECOMES SEVERELY ILL
However, their journal entries indicate that as Sacagawea's condition worsened they began to
realize she was their most precious asset. Clark had her moved to the back of his sleeping
quarters which was more sheltered from the weather. On June 13 Clark gave her a dose of salts
and a mixture of bark to apply to her infected region, "which eased her condition" (Lewis, 1969).
He further recorded that, "The Indian woman much wors this evening, she will not take any
medison, her husband [Charbonneau] petitions to return &, river more rapid late in the evening..."
(Lewis, 1969). We know he was referring to Sacagawea because she was the only Indian woman
on the Expedition.
On June 16, 1805 Lewis also recorded Sacagawea's condition. "This gave me some concern as
well for the poor object herself, then with a young child in her arms, as from the consideration of
her being our only dependence for a friendly negociation with the Snake Indians [Shoshone
Tribe] on whom we depend for horses to assist us in our portage from the Missouri [to travel by
land from the River, through the rugged mountainous terrain to the Pacific Ocean] (Lewis, 1969).
AT TIMES NEAR DEATH, SACAGAWEA’S BODY STRUGGLES TO REBOUND
During the day, Sacagawea had continued to carry luggage and her nursing baby who was
strapped on her back, while the Expedition Party traveled over rough terrain. Everyone had to do
their share, and Charbonneau made no special concessions for the "Squaw" he had purchased.
Nor did he follow the instructions given to him by Lewis concerning her care and feeding during
her illness (Lewis, 1969).
Later in the day Lewis gave her water he obtained from a nearby sulfur springs, opium, and a
mixture of ground bark believed capable of assisting her recovery. In fact, her symptoms
demonstrate that she was experiencing septic shock from a spreading bacterial infection, which
was frequently deadly before the advent of today's antibiotics (Lewis, 1969).
A good medic but a poor speller, Lewis recorded "w[h]en I came down I found her pulse were
scarcely perceptible, very quick frequently irregular and attended with strong nervous symptoms,
that of the twitching of the fingers and leaders of the arm... she complains principally of the lower
region of the abdomen... from obstruction of the mensis...." Sacagawea was very ill (Lewis, 1969).
Clark further recorded on the evening of June 16, 1805 that she was "out of her senses...If she
dies it will be the fault of her husband as I am now convinced." Clark’s medical knowledge and
these recorded symptoms indicate that the explorers believed that Sacagawea had a venereal
disease (Lewis, 1969).
SACAGAWEA SLOWLY RECOVERS
When the treatments Lewis had administered began to increase her strength, she was compelled
by Chabonneau to stagger out of the camp to collect wild apples to cook, which was the duty of
an obedient "Squaw." Her condition had worsened until Lewis intervened to provide her with
additional rest and medication (Lewis, 1969).
It can be speculated that the obvious concern and assistance, which both Lewis and Clark had
shown to Sacagawea during her severe illness and recovery, had created a permanent bond of
loyalty. She would perform valuable services at critical times which actually saved the Expedition.
SACAGAWEA PROVIDES ADVICE: WHICH INDIAN TRAIL SHOULD THEY TAKE
On July 13, 1806 Clark recorded that Sacagawea had recognized the territory they were in
because her Shoshone Tribe had traveled it when she was a child. Clark was faced with deciding
which of the many Indian trails ahead of them would lead the Expedition through the correct
Pass. Clark writes:
"I observe several leading roads which appear to pass to a gap in the mountain…. The indian
woman [Sacagawea was the only Indian Woman on the Expedition] who has been of great
service to me as a pilot through this country reccommends a gap in the mountain more south
which I shall cross" (Lewis, 1969). It was named the Bozeman Pass, and was later chosen as the
best route for the Northern Pacific Railway!
The leaders of the Expedition had clearly begun to realize the importance Sacagawea held for the
success of the President's order to find the "Northwest Passage." They also needed her to
communicate with her Shoshone Tribe in order to obtain the horses that were essential to carry
them and all their supplies through the mountains to reach the Pacific Coast. They had lost faith
in Charbonneau's judgment, and slowly became aware of the abuse he leveled at Sacagawea
SACAGAWEA NEARLY DROWNS
On July 29, 1805 Lewis reported that Sacagawea, her infant, Captain Clark and Charbonneau all
nearly drowned in a flash flood. A sudden downpour caused a torrent of water, mud, boulders
and debris to violently descend upon them, as they huddled in a previously dry ravine (Lewis,
Charbonneau again demonstrated his incompetence to act intelligently during an emergency.
Lewis wrote on June 29,1805, that Charbonneau was so frozen with fear that he dropped his
"gun, shot pouch, horn, tomahawk... and Clark's compass... a serious loss..." (Lewis, 1969).
To emphasize the seriousness of the near drowning, Lewis continued to write of the concern he
felt for Sacagawea and her infant, "The brier[infants cradle and mosquito netting] in which the
woman carry's her child and all it's cloaths [clothes] wer swept away as they lay at her feet[,] she
having time only to grab her child; the infant was therefore very cold and the woman also had just
recovered from a severe indisposition [illness] was also wet and cold..." (Lewis, 1969).
Clark also recorded his concern about the incident on July 29, revealing that in the aftermath, he
even gave Sacagawea some rum to help her recover. This was an unheard of gesture by a White
or Indian man towards merely a "Squaw" (Lewis, 1969).
Clark wrote: "I derected [directed] the perty to return to the camp at the run as fast as possible to
get back to the camp where they could get warm clothing for the mother and child who were ...
wet and cold, I was fearful of a relapse I caused her [Sacagawea] and the others of the party to
take a little of the spirits [Rum], which my servent had [carried for me] in a canteen, which revived
[them] verry much" (Lewis, 1969).
Sacagawea's value to Lewis and Clark had finally been realized! At the same time, they became
less tolerant of Charbonneau's mistakes and his mistreatment of Sacagawea.
EXPLORERS BECOME PROTECTIVE WHEN SACAGAWEA STRUCK BY HUSBAND
On August 14, 1805 Lewis angrily reported in his journal that Charbonneau, "struck his Indian
Woman for which Capt. C.[lark] gave him a severe reprimand." Although wife abuse was accepted
in the tribe of Sacagawea's childhood, she clearly began to thrive as her personal rights within
the Expedition grew. The longing to return to her Shoshone Tribe would diminish after the
excitement of the reunion with her brother wore off (Lewis, 1969).
EXPEDITION ENCOUNTERS THE SHOSHONE
A log entry for August 17, 1805, described the first meeting of Sacagawea's Shoshone Tribe. Clark
recorded that: "I had not proceeded on one mile before I saw at a distance Several Indians on
horsback comeing towards me, The Interpreter [Charbonneau] & Squar [Sacagawea] who were
before me at Some distance danced for the joyful sight, and She [Sacagawea] made signs to me
that they were her nation [Indian sign language of sucking her fingers]…" (Lewis, 1969)
On the same day Lewis recorded that "…the Indian woman [Sacagawea] proved to be a sister of
the Chief Cameahwait. The meeting of those people was really affecting [emotional], particularly
between Sah-cah-gar-we-ah and an Indian woman, who had been taken prisoner at the same time
with her and who, had afterwards escaped from the Minnetares and rejoined her nation" (Lewis,
THE EXPEDITION'S SUCCESS WOULD DEPEND UPON SHOSHONE INDIANS WHO
LIVED IN A STATE OF POVERTY
The Shoshone Tribe of Sacagawea's birth are described in the Expedition's journal. On August
19, 1805, Lewis entered into his log the following description of Sacagawea's people:
"From what has been said of the Shoshones it will be readily perceived that they live in a
wretched stait [state] of poverty" (Lewis, 1969).
Lewis continued, "Yet notwithstanding this extreem poverty they are not only cheerful but even
gay, fond of gaudy dress and amusements; like most other Indians they are great egotists and
frequently boast of heroic acts which they never performed (Lewis, 1969).
Shoshone Sun Dance 1900 (Courtesy of the Denver Public Library Western History Archive)
Lewis wrote that, "They are fond of games of wrisk [risk]. They are frank, communicative, fair in
dealing, generous with the little they possess, extreemly honest, and by no means beggarly. Each
individual is his own sovereign master, and acts from the dictates of his own mind…."(Lewis,
SHOSHONES DISTRUST THE EXPLORERS MOTIVES
The explorers believed that because Sacagawea's brother was the Chief of the Shoshones, the
Expedition was more likely to get the horses they needed to travel to their final destination, the
Pacific Ocean. However, they soon discovered that the Shoshone knew that to help a few White
men would only bring more people into their lands. Deception would become the initial Shoshone
strategy (Lewis, 1969).
By August 24, 1805 the Shoshone's had promised to assist Lewis's group in transporting their
supplies and equipment up a mountain where they would meet with other members from the
Shoshone Village. The Shoshone were to be waiting with the desperately needed horses,
enabling the Expedition to cross land to the Pacific Coast. The explorers soon learned through
Sacagawea's alertness and loyalty to the Expedition, that the Shoshone did not intend to help the
White man claim their territory (Lewis, 1969).
The Shoshone knew that without the horses the Expedition could not proceed deeper into
Shoshone territory. Lewis recorded his personal accusations against them on August 25, 1805.
He said that the Shoshone Indians knew that they "...would never have seen anymore white men
in their country." So they lied to Lewis (Lewis, 1969).
Sacagawea discovered the Shoshone deceit on the morning of August 25, 1805. She had heard
her people discussing their plans for the next day which differed from what they had told Lewis.
Some braves had quietly left the camp (Lewis, 1969).
Shoshone Men 1890 (Courtesy of the Denver Public Library Western History Archive)
Sacagawea told Charbonneau that instead of meeting Lewis's group on a mountain to provide
the needed horses, the Shoshone intended to leave the area and abandon the explorers (Lewis,
That evening Charbonneau casually mentioned to Lewis that he was to meet the Indians in an
opposite direction, greatly agitating Lewis by this revelation. Lewis recorded in his log that he
angrily questioned Charbonneau and discovered that Sacagawea had urgently conveyed this
information to Charbonneau many hours earlier and that Charbonneau had withheld the vital
information (Lewis, 1969).
Lewis wrote that "I was out of patience with the folly of Charbonneau who had not sufficient
sagacity to see the consequences..."(Lewis, 1969).
WAS CHARBONNEAU JEALOUS OF SACAGAWEA?
The entry Lewis made on the day before (August 24, 1805), indicates that Charbonneau may have
had reason to be jealous of the high esteem the Explorers had developed for Sacagawea. Lewis
gave Sacagawea one of the few highly valued horses that they had purchased a few days earlier
during their first contact with the Shoshone. Even in her own tribe she would have been required
to continue walking, while her husband rode horseback. Instead, Sacagawea rode the horse
while the irritable Charbonneau walked behind (Lewis, 1969).
Lewis hurriedly met with the three Shoshone Chiefs and convinced them to hold to their promise
of selling horses to the Expedition, and in return, Lewis promised to provide the Shoshone with
the rifles needed for protection from enemy tribes, and for hunting buffalo (Lewis, 1969).
Sacagawea's relationship to her brother Cameahwait, one of the Shoshone Chiefs, allowed the
Shoshone to trust the promise made by Lewis to provide them with rifles, and in return he got the
needed horses to reach the ocean (Lewis, 1969).
SACAGAWEA'S WISH IS FULFILLED
At an encampment near the coast, it was decided that only two canoes carrying a lucky few,
would be the first to travel down-river to view the ocean's shoreline. On January 6, 1806 Lewis
recorded in his log that Sacagawea insisted that she be selected among those chosen to first
view the Pacific Ocean (Lewis, 1969). To be chosen would confer upon those few, the great value
they held for the success of the Expedition.
Lewis recorded in his journal that Sacagawea complained to him saying that she, "...had traveled
a long way to see the great waters, and that now that monstrous fish [whales] was also to be
seen, she thought it very hard..." if she was not selected among the first group (Lewis, 1969).
Sacagawea was granted this wish along with an equal voice in future decisions. She declined to
stay with her Shoshone Tribe. For Sacagawea the trip home was easy: she believed that she had
earned an equal share of the Modern Democratic World.
WHAT HAPPENED TO SACAGAWEA AFTER THE EXPEDITION RETURNED?
Click the "Sacagawea's Death" tab on the upper left.
NOTE: Many of the above photographs are from the original "gold tone" glass negatives, owned by
Butterfield, and produced by Indian photographer Edward S. Curtis during the 19th century
Web site visitors have asked what Sacagawea looked like and what type of clothing she wore. This is why I
placed many photographs of Shoshone women on this web site. No paintings were made of Sacagawea
her life and photography did not develop until after her death. The photo of Shoshone women on our
home page was taken in 1900 on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming (Courtesy of the Denver Public
Library Archives). It may give you an idea of her physical type, but probably not the manner in
which she dressed. Sacagawea lived with the Mandan Indians for much of her short life, and she
probably dressed similar to them.
However, I suspect that she may have also worn pieces of White Women's clothing, because of the
positive interactions she had experienced with the White leaders of the Expedition. It was common for
Indians who intermingled with Whites as Sacagawea did, to wear a few articles of White Man's clothing
the traditional clothing of the tribe.
Anderson, Irving W. (1973). Probing the Riddle of the Bird Woman. Montana, the Magazine of
Western History, 23, 4.
Biddle, Nicholas (1962). The Journals of the Expedition Under the Command of Capt. Lewis &
Clark. New York: Heritage Press.
Brackenridge, Henry M. (1904). Journal of the Voyage up the Missouri River in 1811. In Thwaites,
R. G., Early Western Journals. Cleveland: A. H. Clark.
Drumm, Stella M., ed. (1920). Journal of a Fur-trading Expedition on the Upper Missouri: John
Luttig, 1812-1813. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society.
Hebard, Grace Raymond (1907). Pilot of First White Men to Cross the American Continent. Journal
of American History.
Jackson, Donald, ed. (1962). Letters of the Lewis & Clark Expedition With Related Documents:
1783-1854. Champaign/Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Lewis, Meriwether (1969). Original journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804-1806. New
York: Arno Press.
Original Adoption Documents. Orphans Court Records, St. Louis, Missouri. August 11, 1813.
Schroer, Blanche (1977). A Compendium of Information About the Bird Woman: Her Death and
Burial. Montana, the Magazine of Western History, 27, 2.
Schroer, Blanche (1970). Boat-pusher or Bird-Woman? Sacagawea or Sacajawea? Annals of
Wyoming. 52, 1.
Schroer, Blanche (1963). South Dakota Right? Wyoming State Journal. July 2, 1963.
Website References: Native Jewelry, Art, Literature Native Art and Painting
|Sacagawea: From Captive to Expedition Interpreter to Great
American Legend- Her Life
By Bonnie "Spirit Wind-Walker" Butterfield (Cherokee/Mohawk/Dutch)
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